icefall

Rescuing somebody from an ice fall

Call 911, it’s best to get help on the way just in case your not able to become the hero of the day. Do not rush to the edge of the hole to attempt to rescue. This may turn into 2 victims in the water instead. When trying to save somebody else that fell into the water remember the steps  Preach, Reach, Throw, Row and Go.

 

  • Preach: Try to coach the person out of the water. Shout out words of encouragement to help them stay calm, fight and survive. Remind them to stay afloat, to never give up, that help is on the way.

  • Reach: If you’re not able to talk them out of the situation safely extend and object like rope, paracord or even jumper cables. Try to stay on the solid safe ground as much as possible, do not go any further out on the ice then what’s needed. If the victim begins to pull you in then release your grip and try again.

  • Throw: throw a line or something that can float. Try to have them wrap the line around their body before they become too weak to grasp it with their hands.

  • Row: Grab a small boat or floatation device. Row or float out to the victim or toss the floatation device out to the victim. If you’re able to grab a boat then pull the person over into the boat.

  • Go: If all else fail you’re just going to have to go get them, but it’s best to let the professionals do this. If you must approach a hole don’t walk upright, instead lay down and roll or slide to the edge. Spreading your body over a larger surface area will make the ice less susceptive to break more. But if it’s too dangerous to perform a rescue then just call 911 and continue to verbally coach the person.

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Ice Ice Baby: Ice Baths

Many professional athletes jump into ice-filled bathtubs after a strenuous workout. Some of the rationales behind putting your body through such extremes is very much straight forward. The low temperatures instantly cool the muscles down; which is an efficient way to bring down inflammation.

Muscles that are overworked become sore due to a chemical called lactic acid. When your muscles are put under heavy stress they begin to get deprived of oxygen and lactic acid starts to build up causing the inflammation.

Ice baths help the blood vessels and the muscles to momentarily constrict which helps get rid of all the waste and byproducts from a strenuous workout. Once the body begins to warm up from the ice bath, the muscle tissue that was affected begins to increase in blood flow. That increase in blood flow helps with the muscle recovery.

If you have never done this before, it is obvious that it will suck and will be very unpleasant. Just remember that that unpleasantness is temporary.

 

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Swipe Right on this Tinder!

 

To start a fire, you need a source, either from a flame or spark. Afterward, use tinder, then move to kindling. The process is simple but difficult when in a survival situation.

Tinder is very crucial and necessary to start a fire. Using our crinkle paper from our boxes will help you create a successful fire. Just put some in a ziplock bag and put it inside your camping/bug out bag.

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Five Major Terrain Features

Hilltops: This is the highest point in a rise of land. This type of terrain is great to overlook your surroundings.

 

Ridgeline: This is a sloping line of high ground composed of a series of hilltops.

 

Saddle: This is a bend or a low point between two areas of higher ground. If you are standing in the center of a saddle, there is high ground to your left and right and low ground in front to your front and rear.

 

Draw: A draw is a decrease in elevation from a saddle with high ground on each side.

 

Valley: This is a stretched out groove in the land, usually formed by streams or rivers. If standing in a valley, there is high ground in two opposite directions and a gradual incline in the other two directions.

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Hang it anywhere!

Highlighted area you can cut into
 
A simple way to make the Sawyer Mini a great gravity filter is by slightly modifying to hang off objects. Since the 16oz Sawyer bladder has a heat pressed end, it’s really easy to take advantage of that and make some holes.
I used a three-part hole punch to create a hole
 
Find a hole punch to make a hole on sides. A drill can be used to make a hole as well.
Repeat step for the other side.
Run 550 cord through the holes and tie a knot.
Note: Different type of line/rope can be used.
 
 
 
Now your Sawyer Mini Filter can be hung anywhere to filter water!
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The Sawyer Mini Filter

The Mini is Sawyer’s smallest, lightest and most versatile filter. This 0.1-micron absolute filter weighs a mere 2 ounces, is rated up to 100,000 gallons and can be used the following ways:

 (drink directly as shown above)

The MINI can be attached to the included collapsible drinking pouch, inline on a hydration pack, on a standard soda bottle, or simply use the included drinking straw to drink directly from the water source.  How is that for versatility?

FAQ’s

Can I filter salt water? – No, but that would be nice!

Can the filter freeze? – Brand new filters can be frozen. Once used avoid freezing a filter as it is unknown if freezing will damage the fibers. Try to keep the filter in a plastic bag in a pocket or in your sleeping bag if you’re in below freezing temperatures.

Does it filter taste or chemicals? – The Sawyer filter removes taste that comes from bacteria, dirt, and green matter but not from chemicals or heavy metals. Sawyer filters are not made with charcoal. While other portable filters have charcoal, they lack in the amount of media and adequate dwell time to be truly effective. Therefore, they only remove small amounts of heavy metals, pesticides, etc. (when used in real life applications). Try using better sources of water if possible.

For more FAQ’s please visit www.sawyer.com/faqs

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Why choose a Sawyer Filter?

THE 0.1 MICRON ABSOLUTE DIFFERENCE

  • Sawyer’s fiber walls are thicker and more robust than other Hollow Fiber Membranes. This allows for higher pressure both for filtering and for backwashing. Sawyer filters can handle 60 PSI forward and 20 PSI backward.
  • Sawyer has a proprietary process of making all pores more uniform in size.
  • Sawyer’s proprietary process allows for more pores giving better flow and less cleaning.
  • Sawyer’s proprietary design has a self-priming mechanism to eliminate air locks making them much easier to restart.
  • Sawyer 100% tests all filters to insure no pore is larger than 0.1 microns.
  • Sawyer 100% flow tests all filters to ensure adequate flow.
  • Sawyer 100% tests all filters after final assembly to ensure quality.
  • There is nothing to wear out inside the filter. If water is owing, it’s good.

THE 0.02 MICRON ABSOLUTE DIFFERENCE

  • The 0.02-micron purifier has all the advantages of the 0.1-micron filter but with 0.02-micron pores.
  • It is the only filter that removes viruses so effortlessly. Gravity does all the work.
  • There are no harmful chemicals or heavy metals in the filter.

 

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Understanding coliforms

WHAT ARE THEY

Coliforms are a broad class of bacteria found in the environment.

 

It’s chocolate ice cream, but you get the point

WHERE DO THEY COME FROM

Both the harmful and non-harmful bacteria primarily come from the feces of humans and other warm-blooded animals. They can also come from rotting vegetation. The presence of non-harmful coliform bacteria in drinking water may indicate a possible presence of harmful, disease-causing organisms.

 

HARMFUL VS. NON-HARMFUL

Most Coliform bacteria do not cause disease. Coliforms are broken into 3 groups:

Total Coliforms They include bacteria that are found in the soil, in water that has been in influenced by surface water, and in human or animal waste.

Fecal Coliforms both harmful and non-harmful: They are the group of the total coliforms that are considered to be present specifically in the gut and feces of warm-blooded animals

  1. Coli – a subgroup of the Fecal Coliforms: Some strains of E. Coli can cause serious illness.

PROLIFIC VS. NON-PROLIFIC

E.Coli is generally not found growing and reproducing in the environment. Total Coliforms (of the non-harmful type) are very prolific and once introduced to a surface can spread quickly. These non-harmful types include both fecal and non-fecal Coliforms.

 

COLIFORMS AND CLEANLINESS

The spread of Coliforms can be combated through good Hygiene. Simple washing with soap and water will prevent the spread of them.

SPREAD OF COLIFORMS

Coliforms can spread by touching the clean end of the filter with a dirty hand, by animal contact, or even by dust particles. Proper hygiene techniques must be taught with the use of the filters. Otherwise, contamination of the discharge side occurs. This is supported both by the Tuft’s study and the Messiah/John Hopkins study referenced later in this handout.

TESTING FOR COLIFORMS

Because Total Coliforms reproduce very quickly they are easy to test for. A high indication of total Coliforms is usually a good and inexpensive way to determine if water needs treatment but it does not guarantee the presence of E. Coli. This type of testing is broad and encompasses most of the non-harmful types of Coliforms.

COMMON MISTAKES MADE WITH TESTING

Because the Total Coliform testing is inexpensive most people believe it is a simple way to see if the filter is working. What they really end up testing is not that the filter is working, but whether or not the discharge end has been contaminated. It only takes a few Coliform bacteria on the discharge to contaminate the sample. Once contaminated the bacteria very quickly grow in the test solution giving a positive test result.

 

HOW TO PROPERLY TEST A FILTER

There is no quick and easy field test to see if a filter is working. Even an E. Coli test can yield false positive results if the discharge end of
the filter is not clean. Simply running water through the filter and doing a total Coliform test does not prove if the filter is working or not. Unless the filters discharged has been cleaned of ALL bacteria, you are going to get a false positive result. People believe that because they processed their sample correctly, they tested the filter correctly. They do not take into account the contamination that could have occurred on the discharge side of the filter and wrongly assume the filter is not functioning. Every time we hear of filter failure it always turns out to be procedural errors. Backwashing and pushing will remove the harmful bacteria, but will not remove all the bacteria. The small amount of non-harmful bacteria that remain will multiply very quickly and yield a false positive test result.

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Sawyer Filter Back-flushing Benefits

Sawyer has working filters that have been in continuous use for over six years and had filters which have filtered hundreds of thousands of gallons of water. Sawyer’s fibers are so robust, they can be back washed and reused perpetually.

  • When backwashing, even the stubborn dirt can be forced off the fibers.
  • Sawyer’s robust fibers will not “wear out” over time.
  • Sawyer fibers will not break or become damaged if dropped. Only breaking the sealed casing and “playing” with fibers or freezing the cartridge after it is wet could damage the fibers.